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英语----On Translating Film Names Guided by Translation Variation

来源: 长沙中视澜庭教育咨询有限公司  日期:2018-01-13 15:38:10  点击:254 
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demand contradict摘要

    变译理论是基于大量的翻译实践总结提出的一套颇具本土特色和意识的翻译理论。变译是以读者为口标的具体翻译方法,其本质是变通。电影片名的翻译因文化差异、观众需求不同和言语表达矛盾,有时需要采用变译策略。片名变译的宗旨就是满足特定条件下特定观众的特定需求,使观众消费电影商品,达成文化传播。
 
关键词:翻译;片名变译;矛盾;口标
 
 
 
Abstract
   Translation variation is from lots of translating practice and of local characteristics. It is in need for translating film's name when confronted with cultural differenc; consumers' demands and bilinguistically contradictory presentations for which the purpose bends itself to audience's needs , by making them content with theirs and thus leading to cultural communication
 
Keywords: Translation; Film'snametranslation variation; Contradiction; purpose
 
 
Content
 
摘要 1
Abstract 1
Preface 3
I Film title and translation Variation 3
II The Basic Principles of English Film Titles Translation under the translation Variation 6
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2.2 Adaptability 7
2.3 Changeability 8
III The essence of film title translation 9
IV The Contradiction of Film Titles under translation Variation 10
4.1 Cultural contradictions 10
4.2 Demand contradiction 11
4.3 Language contradiction 12
V Film title translation goals 13
5.1 Meet the specific conditions of film transmission 13
5.2 A specific object that satisfies the movie 14
5.3 Meet the special needs of the film audience 15
Conclusion 16
Reference 17

 

 
 

Preface

   Film and television translation is "for the film, television, video and DVD made in the language and interlingual translation", the scope of the main film and television script, voice and subtitles translation. The title of the film belongs to a subtitle, often appear in the titles or posters, with information, business, communication, aesthetic and other aspects of the functional value, the need to guide and stimulate the role of consumption. The problems in the process of film title translation, such as semantic equivalence, cultural inheritance and artistic reproduction, all need the intervention and guidance of translation theory, so that the audience can accurately understand the real information of film and television works, The core of "translation translation" has a good guiding effect on the practice of film and television translation.Firstly, this paper analyzes the translation of the film and television translation practice, which is based on a large number of translation practice. Name of the name of the start, the translation theory 'specific conditions of specific readers of the special needs' and the title of the functional value of the combination of the theory applied to film and television translation practice, to explore the translation method.
 

I Film title and translation Variation

   The film title is like a person's name, is the first element of the introduction of the film, the audience's choice to provide first-hand information. At present, the name of the film mainly to the story, the role, background, theme as the source, so the audience can be the first time to know or the film about the story, or the main characters and images involved, it may be the story of the Time, place, related events, and some worthy ideas. From a more professional point of view, the film name to a certain extent also reflects the type and style of the film. These are the title of the information function, which is one. Second, the film's natural commodity attributes determine its commercial value, only to be called and catch the name of the eye can be directed at the people. Moreover, the film's merchandise properties determine its inevitable in the field of circulation, the title to be eloquent to facilitate the legendary memory. Finally, the film is a combination of business and art, aesthetic experience in the title should also be reflected. In short, a successful film title should have both information, business, circulation and aesthetic value. The audience of the film product has mixed characteristics, namely gender, age, occupation, identity, geographical, cultural background, educational level, religious beliefs, etc., and a movie often only needs a suitable name to accept all The selection of the audience; the film is a cultural product, shoulder the task of spreading the national culture, therefore, in compliance with the premise of the market under the premise of what kind of adaptation strategy, which translation methods to maximize the audience to meet the different levels of Cultural needs, is a question worth exploring. Translation can be regarded as the ideal guide. Translation is a non - complete translation. It is the translator according to the specific conditions of specific readers of the special needs of the use of increased, reduced, compiled, described, shrink, and change the alternative means to take the original content of the translation activities. Translation of emphasis on intake, the essence is variable, the word is the smallest unit of translation. The translation of the film title is from the naming law to meet the specific needs of a particular audience as the goal, to take the means of adaptation of the relevant functions of the title value of the translation activities. It can at the lowest cost, the best effect to meet the specific conditions of specific audience specific viewing needs, more effective dissemination of film and television culture. With the increasingly frequent cultural exchanges between China and the West, more and more foreign films went into the Chinese market, attracting the eyes of the Chinese audience. Title is like a film's face, before the understanding of the film plot, the title is the audience the most intuitive and most important understanding of a video channel, and often they evaluate whether a movie is worth watching one of the criteria. Therefore, an eye-catching, people shine of the translation will allow the audience a better understanding of the film content for the audience to bring beauty to enjoy, of course, will bring a higher film office box office revenue. Film title translation is an important part of the translation work, of course, also need the correct translation of rationale as a guide. In many Chinese and Western translation, Professor Huang Zhonglian proposed translation of variability, I believe that the translation of film titles have a good guiding significance. With the correct and reasonable management, the title translation work Diaoyi can move in a more healthy direction.
   Based on the extensive research on the translation work, Professor Huang Zhonglian proposed the translation of the whole translation and translation category, or translation variant, which means that the translator adopts the special needs of the reader to adopt the expansion, choice, enrichment, interpretation, supplement, Transformation and other means to take the original content or part of the contents of the translation activities. The reader in this definition, of course, refers to the target reader (in this paper, the target audience), so we can see that translation is actually a translation-oriented reader-oriented translation In addition, the definition of the intake center content or part The content also shows that the translation of the pursuit of the original text is not the overall acceptance, but the translator only pick the target language readers useful part. The film as a mass culture, for different cultural levels, different cultural background of the audience services, and only in this way, the film producer Diao can achieve a maximum profit. The Chinese and Western audiences belong to two completely different cultural backgrounds, with different aesthetic taste, so the need to change the source language into the target audience can accept the useful information for the target audience. In his book "Translation Variant Studies", Huang Zhonglian also talked about many methods of translation, such as interpreting, compiling, reviewing, translating, translating and so on. In many translation methods, the most suitable for film title translation should be translated. In the writings of Huang, the translator refers to the translator in the translation of literary works of the original creative transplant, in the process of re-creation of this transplant, the transformation of the inevitable to protect it to their own nation, the times And the color of the transformer's personality in the adaptation, there are changes in the form, content changes and changes in style, this translation has been translated into a creative translation of foreign works called translation.
   The change of naturalization, the change of the original to adapt to the translation of the reader's interest in the localization process is the translation of the naturalization; adaptability, the purpose of domestication is to adapt to the reader's interest in reading; primary and secondary, and then How to adapt to the reader, how to adapt to the original, the principle of change in the re-translation is absolute Huang Zhonglian mainly from the perspective of literary translation to introduce the translation, but I believe that the same translation applies to the film Translation of the film title translation is also applicable to these principles, in the film title translation also exists content, form, style changes; also to a certain naturalization to meet the needs of the target audience; in the translation People must also grasp the theme of the film ideas, can not play any one hundred and eight thousand miles away from the title. So what are the specific ways to change the film title?

II The Basic Principles of English Film Titles Translation under the translation Variation

   English film title translation is actually a re-creation work, the translator in the text of the conversion process, it is necessary to be faithful to the original film content, but also in line with the cultural characteristics of the slogan, trial interest, so that the film has a strong Attractiveness and appeal to increase box office revenue. In the process of translation, we should follow the following basic principles.

2.1 Modificability

   The biggest feature of translation is the change of the original, including changes in content, changes in form and style changes. The Dead Poet society tells the story of what happened to the Wilton School of Preparatory, where the educational model was fixed, not only monotonous but also bound by people's minds. However, all this has changed in the hands of a new teacher, Mr. Keating. His anti-traditional way of education in the students caused a huge response, while he also won the hearts of students. The title translation should be "death poet club", people think it is horror film, it is difficult to link with the actual content of the film. Now the translation of the "spring rain" in the content, form and style have been changed, but the translation of the title than the original title has a more profound theme, showing the main content of the film, to retain the value of the film information. The meaning of this translation profound, so that the audience produced a good association. "Spring rain" is intended to be suitable for the growth of wind and rain, commonly used to metaphor good education. A see the translation, the Chinese audience is easy to think of the hard "gardener", can not help but awe. The translation is in line with the cultural characteristics of Chinese, but also retains the cultural value of the original film; at the same time, it is like an art boutique, giving people the enjoyment of art, in line with the audition of our audience fun, the successful realization of the information value, Especially the value of cultural value and the value of the trial, and truly achieve functional equivalence.
   Another example is the American film One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest as literal "flying over the cuckoo nest" people feel some scratching their heads. In fact, the whole film and rhododendron nest nothing to do, it is about a man in a mental hospital story. Cuckoo itself is really the meaning of cuckoo, but in the West, cuckoo's nest refers to the mental hospital. If the translator understands this, translating his title into "flying over the madhouse" not only better summarizes the content of the film, transmits the information of the film, but also produces a similar psychological reaction in the Chinese and Western audiences.

2.2  Adaptability

   The purpose of domestication is to enhance the interest of Chinese audiences. We should try to translate the English title into a more Chinese flavor when translating English film titles so as to be easier for the Chinese audience to understand and accept.In China, people pay attention to the symmetry of the language harmony, especially those who express strong, well-known four-character grid. Four words between the words and sentences, with a strong scalability, read up catchy. Therefore, a large number of Western films of the four-character Chinese translation is generally loved by the Chinese audience, such as:Moonlight《披星戴月》, The legend of the fall《燃情岁月》,Dances with wolves《与狼共舞》,Forrest gump《阿甘正传》,Entrapment《偷天陷阱》, The Fugitive《亡命天涯》etc. Another example is the classic music comedy ‘bathing beauty’. Chinese people are very familiar with its translation of "出水芙蓉". In Chinese folk, "hibiscus" is often used to describe the elegant woman, and "water" reflects the bathing, the real meaning in the film. The audience can imagine the translation of such a picture: the music sounded, dozens of girls dancing in the water. Suddenly the crowd scattered, the heroine from the water slowly rising, "water hibiscus" meaning immediately all show. This is not often consistent with the Chinese people's thinking habits and trial off the psychological, is the perfect example of four-grid application.

2.3 Changeability

   The biggest feature of translation is the change of the original, including changes in content, changes in form and style changes. The Dead Poet society tells the story of what happened to the Wilton College. There, the pattern of education is fixed, not only monotonous but also bound by people's minds. However, all this has changed in the hands of a new teacher, Mr. Keating. His anti-traditional way of education in the students caused a huge response, and he also won the hearts of students. The title translation should be "death poet club", people think it is horror film, it is difficult to link with the actual content of the film. It is now translated into "spring rain", in the content, form and style have been changed, but the translation of the title than the original title has a more profound theme, showing the main content of the film, to retain the film's information value.The meaning of this translation profound, so that the audience produced a good association. "Spring rain" is intended to be suitable for the growth of wind and rain, commonly used to metaphor good education. A see the translation, the Chinese audience is easy to think of the hard "gardener", can not help but awe. The translation is in line with the cultural characteristics of Chinese, but also retains the cultural value of the original film; at the same time, it is like an art boutique, giving people the enjoyment of art, in line with the audition of our audience fun, the successful realization of the information value, Especially the value of cultural value and the value of the trial, and truly achieve functional equivalence. Another example is the country's film One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest literally translated as "飞跃疯人院" people feel a little scratching their heads. In fact, the whole film and rhododendron nest nothing to do, it is about a man in a mental hospital story. (Cuckoo itself is really the meaning of cuckoo, but in the West, cuckoo's nest refers to the mental hospital, such as the translator to understand this, the film name translated as "flying over the asylum", not only to better summarize the content of the film, The transmission of the film's information, but also in the Western audience to produce a similar psychological reaction.
 

III The essence of film title translation

  The traditional translation theory of the past classifies the translation of the film title into literary translation, and the method commonly used in literary translation is faithful to the original literal translation. However, the translation of most film titles did not follow the principles and methods of traditional translation theory, and the "change" was made to the original title, because the translation of the film title was largely influenced by commercial factors. In fact the film title is an ad, the film title translation is not literary translation, but advertising translation.
   Due to the great differences between Chinese and Western cultures and the differences between Chinese and English, the translation of film titles should fully reflect the different way of thinking and the way of thinking in the way of thinking and the way of thinking, which determines the cultural information Equivalent delivery is not possible. Therefore, the translation of film titles should be an effective transfer of cultural information, rather than equivalent delivery. Effective transfer requires the translator to consider the translation of the reader and the reader to accept the effect, to "edge translation side", the original implementation of "change." (Liu Qingyuan, 2006 133-135)Liu Qingyuan in the "equivalent of the title of the title translation" also pointed out that "in order to get the audience the best response to the film, literary translation of the 'faithful' principle is no longer adapt, and sometimes also from the overall focus, bigger "This flexibility is particularly evident in Hong Kong and Taiwan 's film translation.In short, the film title translation is different from the general translation of the title, but also different from the literary translation, is based on the actual needs of deliberately added to the original meaning of a means of communication is advertising translation, is the effective transmission of cultural information. This is consistent with the requirements of translation theory, is worthy of our attention and research.
 

IV The Contradiction of Film Titles under translation Variation

   Huang Zhonglian believes that translation activities are aimed at solving two contradictions, cultural contradictions and language conflicts. Translation is based on the premise of the external context, the reader as the center, to solve the original and multi-level target language between the cultural contradictions. In thions and language conflicts.

4.1 Cultural contradictions

   Cultural Contradictions of Title Translation refers to the cultural background of the movie audience (including the audience and potential consumers) cultural awareness and the film itself are different. For example, the 2013 Oscar best film "Argo" in English title '`Argo' from the Iranian hostage crisis in 1979: when the US Embassy in Iran was just won the victory of the Islamic revolution surrounded by Iranian people, During the six diplomats successfully escaped, in order to repatriate them safe exit, CIA agents disguised as a producer, lied to the local shooting a "Argo" science fiction "Argo" word from the ancient Greek mythology, is Greek hero in the Athena help built a ship, the film fictional spacecraft named this history and allusions for the general audience in mainland China is completely strange, the film in the introduction of the domestic named "escape Tehran", both Point out the location of the incident, but also revealed the incident itself, but it is very good to hide the escape after the retention of the pleasure of viewing.This translation is precisely the audience as the center, abandon the story of the festival, the story of the nuclear , The meaning of the original text, the solution of the lack of culture, can be described as good translation.On the other hand, Hong Kong translated "A fruit out of the task", direct transliteration approach is bland.

4.2 Demand contradiction

   The contradiction of demand is a contradiction between "one" and "many" in the carrier. According to the laws of the market, a film in a region may only have a fixed name, as mentioned earlier, it may originate from the story, the role, the background, the subject, the information, business, circulation and aesthetic value; individual audience single movie The choice can be considered a single demand, the group seems to be diverse, gender, age, preferences, cultural level and even emotions may be influencing factors. In order to achieve the effect of the first person, we must first determine the audience, to clarify their likes and dislikes and the need to study their cultural level and accept the ability, combined with the reality of the need for flexible translation, targeted.
     In 2014 the US film "Non Stop" tells the story of a police officer on the flight of the battle with the terrorists witty story, the title of 'rnon stop' is issued by the terrorists every 20 minutes to kill a When the mainland is released, the film is deleted, only the location of the incident, highlight the event itself, named "air rescue", although not loud on the color, but also in line with the expectations of consumers, Without the need for information transmission. 2010 large tracts of "Tangshan earthquake" tells an ordinary Tangshan family in the earthquake after decades of joys and sorrows. This film focuses on the emotional context of the interpersonal relationship between people. It is a typical family ethical drama. This film as the Oscar for the best foreign language film nominated film landing in the United States, the title was translated as '`Aftershock', as if a standard disaster film." The name does not match "is out of business considerations.On the other side of the ocean a strange family It is difficult to cause the current US audience, especially young people resonate, it would be better to "vote for its good", highlight the disaster itself, cut their cultural awareness, "no matter how the name of the first to cheat you into the theater."

4.3 Language contradiction

   Translation is the exchange and dissemination of information between two languages. The different languages of English and Chinese lead to the objective existence of the third language contradiction. The work of the original title in the practice of words and rhetoric often can not be restored in the translation. Therefore, the translator should respect the reality, pay attention to the function and practicality of the translation, and strive to reach the transmission of language information.
   2008 Oscar best film "No Country for Old Men" film name of the Irish poet Ye Ze (WB Meats) poetry to the Byzantine "(Sailing to Byzantium), the original sentence translated as" that is not the country of the elderly "(check Good translation). Chinese to idiom "old no" translation, abandon the "country" meaning, although a little deviation, but more concise and clear, but also to meet the traditional Chinese audience awareness.
   In 2008 the Chinese mainland film "right and left" tells the story of a divorced mother remarried mother to save the suffering of leukemia and had to choose between her husband and her husband around the story. The original title is full of metaphor, if the literal translation of no taste Therefore, the film from the international market to promote the actual needs of the release, the essence of the interception of the story, cut the theme of human nature, and ultimately named "In Love We Trust". Seeking the same value of things, save the difference between Chinese and foreign languages.

V Film title translation goals

   Translation is a translation activity carried out by the translator based on the specific needs of specific readers under specific conditions. Change translation due to the reader and change, by the translator to change, is the original information of the intensive, is the original value of the highlights. In the communication of the film, the audience is a specific "reader", is the center of translation. The standard of film title translation is to see whether the translation activities and the final translation meet the specific needs of specific audiences under certain conditions.

5.1 Meet the specific conditions of film transmission

   First of all, the time and location of the film is (fixed). Cinema film has a schedule limit. Therefore, an occasional title for the box office is a positive contribution. The 2008 US film "Australia" (Australian chaos) on the eve of the following year in Valentine's Day in mainland China, the film should be added to a "love", showing the film's love theme, so more conducive to the audience to see the film selection.
  Second, the audience of the film products is collectivized, the audience's gender age, professional identity, ideological awareness, and even cultural acceptance are the information content of the selection of reference factors. In the process of cross-international exchange, Chinese and foreign thinking, values, religious differences will affect or even restrict the transmission of cultural information. The translator should consider the audience's understanding and acceptance, change the translation strategy, choose the "same" and translated, do not have to copy or stick to the original text. The 2008 American film "There will be Blood" tells the story of the rise of an American oil tycoon, whose name comes from Chapter 7, "Exodus", which may be blood throughout all the land of Egypt "(Egypt is full of blood everywhere). Chinese name "bloody black gold", to avoid the Chinese audience about the lack of biblical culture, to take care of the local audience for the traditional understanding of oil (black gold), so more acceptable.
  Moreover, the commercial film pay attention to the scene of the grand, the plot of deterrence, the film name will help highlight the film's own shock. The fluency on language can inspire consumers' desire to watch and increase box office revenue. At the same time, the title also has a hint of functional features. Title is the film information intensive, is the value of the concise. Translator's job is to take the most unique elements, highlighting the highest value, promoting film communication and communication. 2009 global hot "Avatar" in the mainland when the official release of the pre-publicity replaced the use of the transliteration of the transliteration of the title "Avatar", the final name "gods down to earth." Chinese traditional mythology there is the lower bound of the bridge, the audience is very familiar with the bizarre shock scene, the new name is more popular, easy to spread orally, but also enhance the viewing impulse. Finally, the translator's own knowledge, education level and other subjective and objective factors will also affect the choice of the value of the title information. In the process of translation, the translator should proceed from the general audience, as close as possible to meet the general consumer's education level, to meet the cultural needs of the broader audience.

5.2 A specific object that satisfies the movie

   The main target group of the film title translation activities is the viewing crowd. Audience is the starting point of the event, but also the destination of information transmission. The film can only be used in order to achieve its ultimate value in order to obtain the use value. The audience due to gender, age, education, geographical, beliefs, etc. in the film selection showed significant differences. Elderly audience preferred to talk about family romance, young people love the scene grand, rhythm fast "popcorn" movie, the children are more popular in the anthropomorphic animated film. In the title translation process, should be conscious of the prominent gender, age, geographical and other factors. For example, the 2012 US film "A Late Quartet" name from Beethoven's name "Late String Quartet", the translator combined with the characters of the age characteristics of a little change, translated as "sunset quartet" is a conscious to attract  the  old audience.

5.3 Meet the special needs of the film audience

   The driving force of translation is the translation of translators. The film audience is a collective, but also "highly subdivided" if it can be divided into a more specific "sub-group", the dissemination of the object to the precise needs analysis, translation will be more targeted. Hollywood classic film "Carrie" namede by name of the hero , she has a super magic. Chinese named "Witch Carrie", the increase in the text message prompted the type of film positioning (horror), the market positioning is more clear. In 2013, Cohen Brothers directed the US film "Inside Llewyn Davis" tells the story of the folk singer Levy Davis struggle story, the protagonist is based on the prototype of the characters fictional, in the face of the Chinese market propaganda film side named "drunk town folk", the main Favored music subject audience.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Conclusion

   The translation of the film title is based on the specific conditions of film transmission, according to the specific audience needs of the specific viewing, the use of alternative means to take the film information interlingual activities. The translation of titles changed the contradiction between cultural contradictions, contradiction of demand and verbal expression in film and television translation, and realized the three goals of translation. However, the influencing factors of viewing activities are not acting alone, often restricting each other. The translator must carefully analyze their characteristics. According to the needs of the audience and the needs of cultural communication, the appropriate method of translation should be selected to ensure the acceptability and validity of information. To promote the value of the value, and ultimately to achieve the precise dissemination of culture.
 
 
 

Reference

[1]冯庆华文体翻译论上海:上海外语教育出版社,2002
[2]黄忠廉翻译变体研究北京:中国对外翻译出版公司lyyy
[3]黄忠廉变译理论北京:中国对外翻译出版公司2002.
[4]现代汉语词典北京:商务印书馆,2002
[5]工璐“满足读者需求”功能的张显与抑制—功能翻译理论视角下的变译女徽文学,2008(3)

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